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  • Acknowledged harm

Botswana has acknowledged the harm caused by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas (EWIPA) and committed to action on the matter.


In 2017, Botswana endorsed the communiqué arising from the Maputo Regional Meeting on Protecting Civilians from the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas. The Maputo Communiqué discussed the harms of EWIPA, the role of African states in working against it, and the need to create a political declaration on the matter. The 19 African states present agreed to work independently and cooperatively to do the following:

  • “Encourage collection of data and information to increase awareness and enhance knowledge about the impact of explosive weapons on civilians in populated areas;
  • Avoid the use of explosive weapons with wide area effects in populated areas;
  • Fully support the process that will lead to the negotiation and adoption of an international political declaration on the use of explosive weapons in populated areas;
  • Promote bilateral and regional cooperation through sharing experiences, good practices and expertise on reducing the harm caused by explosive weapons to civilians;
  • Constructively engage in discussions and initiatives at international level that could effectively provide greater protection to civilians in armed conflicts;
  • Foster deeper and further engagement from African States and facilitate increased involvement as a group of States;
  • Continue and strengthen cooperation and partnerships with international organizations and civil society organizations to draw upon their relevant expertise and support;
  • Channel contributions to the draft international political declaration on the matter, as well as engage in advocacy, at national, regional and international levels.”[1]

Botswana delivered a statement during the General Debate of the 73rd UN General Assembly First Committee in 2018. The statement drew attention to the indiscriminate and long-lasting harm of EWIPA use to civilians and critical infrastructure and reaffirmed the commitments within the Maputo Communiqué.[2]


[1] INEW (2017). ‘Communiqué from Maputo Regional Conference on the Protection of Civilians from the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas.

[2] Permanent Mission of Botswana to the United Nations  (2018), “UNGA73 First Committee Statement.”

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