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Nigeria has acknowledged the harm caused by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas (EWIPA) and committed to action against the use of EWIPA. 


Nigeria participated in the Informal Expert Meeting on strengthening the protection of civilians from the use of explosive weapons in populated areas in Oslo in June 2014.[1]

Nigeria is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), which aligned with the World Humanitarian Summit Core Commitments to “Uphold the Norms that Safeguard Humanity” in May 2016, including the commitment “to promote and enhance the protection of civilians and civilian objects, especially in the conduct of hostilities, for instance by working to prevent civilian harm resulting from the use of wide-area explosive weapons in populated areas, and by sparing civilian infrastructure from military use in the conduct of military operations.”[2]

In 2017, Nigeria endorsed the communiqué arising from the Maputo Regional Meeting on Protecting Civilians from the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas. The Maputo Communiqué discussed the harms of EWIPA, the role of African states in working against it, and the need to create a political declaration on the matter. The 19 African states present agreed to work independently and cooperatively to do the following:

  • “Encourage collection of data and information to increase awareness and enhance knowledge about the impact of explosive weapons on civilians in populated areas;
  • Avoid the use of explosive weapons with wide area effects in populated areas;
  • Fully support the process that will lead to the negotiation and adoption of an international political declaration on the use of explosive weapons in populated areas;
  • Promote bilateral and regional cooperation through sharing experiences, good practices and expertise on reducing the harm caused by explosive weapons to civilians;
  • Constructively engage in discussions and initiatives at the international level that could effectively provide greater protection to civilians in armed conflicts;
  • Foster deeper and further engagement from African states and facilitate increased involvement as a group of states;
  • Continue and strengthen cooperation and partnerships with international organisations and civil society organisations to draw upon their relevant expertise and support;
  • Channel contributions to the draft international political declaration on the matter, as well as engage in advocacy, at national, regional and international levels.”[3]

Nigeria endorsed the Ireland-led joint statement during the 74th United Nations General Assembly First Committee in 2019.[4] The statement encouraged states to participate in international efforts to address the impacts of the use of EWIPA on civilians, including by working towards the creation of an international political declaration on this issue.[5]

Nigeria participated in the Vienna Conference on the Protection of Civilians in Urban Warfare on October 2019.[6]


[1] INEW (2014). ‘Informal Expert Meeting on Strengthening the Protection of Civilians From the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas’.

[2] Agenda for Humanity. ‘Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)’.

[3]  INEW (2017). ‘Communiqué from Maputo Regional Conference on the Protection of Civilians from the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas.

[4] INEW (2019). ‘Seventy-one states call for action on impact of explosive weapons in joint statement to UN General Assembly.’

[5] Permanent Mission of Ireland to the United Nations (2019). ‘UNGA74 First Committee Joint Statement on Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas (EWIPA)’.

[6] INEW (2019). ‘Vienna Conference Marks Turning Point as States Support Negotiation of an International Political Declaration on Explosive Weapons’. 

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