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Statement during May 2019 Security Council Open Debate on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict:

“Armed conflicts are increasingly taking place in urban centres. We all know that explosive weapons in populated areas cause serious injuries to civilians and affect services that are essential to their survival. We therefore strongly condemn the use of those weapons in populated areas, not only because of their grave consequences but also because they violate the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 Protocols Additional, as the Secretary-General reminded us this morning. In that regard, we address an urgent appeal to the international community to adopt all the measures necessary to provide a protection and security framework for those who suffer from the consequences of the indiscriminate use of those deadly weapons, and at the same time offer them protection and relief, especially for the most vulnerable. It is important to stress that the Latin American and Caribbean region expressed its unwavering commitment to the protection of civilians in the Santiago communiqué, in which 23 States, including Guatemala, together with international organizations, agreed on additional actions to address this problem at the national, regional and international levels.”


Santiago Regional Meeting on Protecting Civilians from the Use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas

Santiago Communiqué

Representatives of 23 Latin American and Caribbean states[1],the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Network on Explosive Weapons and other civil society organizations, met in Santiago, Chile, from 5-6 December 2018, to share knowledge and evidence on the distinctive pattern of harm caused to civilians by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, and to explore steps to address this harm at a political and operational level.

Representatives expressed concern that explosive weapons used in populated areas cause deaths, injuries and traumas to civilians, damage and destroy essential infrastructure and critical services, drive involuntary displacement, leave explosive remnants of war that pose a threat in the long term, disrupt social coexistence, economic activities and compromise human security.

In their exchanges, the representatives concluded that Latin American and Caribbean states as well as civil society can play a pivotal role in enhancing the protection of civilians from the harm caused by explosive weapons in a time when armed conflicts are increasingly fought in population centres.

Furthermore, State representatives acknowledged the need for further actions to address this issue at national, regional and international levels, in particular, but not limited to, the following:
–        Encourage collection of data and information to increase awareness and enhance knowledge about the impact of explosive weapons on civilians in populated areas;
–        Avoid the use of explosive weapons with wide area effects in populated areas;
–        Act to enhance compliance with international humanitarian and human rights law to ensure the protection of civilians and civilian objects, including school and hospitals during armed conflict and to contribute to alleviating humanitarian harm resulting from the effects of explosive weapons in populated areas;
–        Develop effective measures to prevent attacks in contravention of applicable international law against hospitals and schools and protected persons in relation to them;
–        Fully support the process that will lead to the negotiation and adoption of an international political declaration on the use of explosive weapons in populated areas;
–        Promote bilateral and regional cooperation through sharing experiences, good practices and expertise on reducing the harm caused by explosive weapons to civilians;
–        Constructively engage in discussions and initiatives at international level that could effectively provide greater protection to civilians in armed conflicts;
–        Foster deeper and further engagement from Latin American and the Caribbean states and facilitate increased involvement as a group of States;
–        Continue and strengthen cooperation and partnerships with international organizations and civil society organizations to draw upon their relevant expertise and support;
–        Channel contributions to the draft international political declaration on the matter, as well as engage in advocacy, at national, regional and international levels.

Santiago, Chile, December 2018

[1] Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St Kitts and Nevis, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Uruguay.


Joint Statement on Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas (EWIPA) during the 73rd Session of the UN General Assembly’s First Committee – October 2018

In an unprecedented joint statement at the meeting of the UN General Assembly’s First Committee, fifty states expressed grave concern over the humanitarian harm caused by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas. The statement, delivered by Ireland, noted the “overwhelming evidence” of the humanitarian impact and devastating harm to civilians caused by use of explosive weapons which “far outlasts the conflicts in which they are used”, and highlighted in particular concerns over the use of explosive weapons with wide area effects in populated areas. States also emphasised that this devastation in turn “acts as a catalyst for the displacement of people within and across borders, rendering displaced persons and refugees vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.”

The statement called for efforts to reverse the trend of high levels of civilian harm, and to enhance respect for and compliance with international humanitarian law (IHL), whilst at the same time noting that in many conflict situations, questions remain over how the existing rules are being interpreted and translated into policies and practice on the ground. Over the past several years the UN Secretary-Generals have made repeated calls on states to develop measures to address this problem, including, as the statement notes, “the development of a political declaration, the development of common standards and operational policies or through the sharing of policies and practices.” The endorsing states expressed continued support for civil society which has worked effectively over the past several years to address the challenges posed by EWIPA and committed to “remain seized of efforts to address the humanitarian harm caused […] through the achievement of a possible future political declaration and by maintaining support for other relevant initiatives, including regional conferences.”

The full joint statement is available here:


Statement during UN General Assembly First Committee Debate on Conventional Weapons, October 2015:

“Asimismo, quisieramos expresar nuestra preocupacion por el uso de armas explosivas en zonas pobladas, y las consecuencias humanitarias devastadoras, y recordamos la importancia de respetar el Derecho Internacional Humanitario asi como la responsabilidad de los Estados de proteger a sus poblaciones civiles.”

Statement during the June 2015 Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict:

“We firmly condemn the use of explosive weapons in densely populated urban areas, because this increases the vulnerability of children, resulting in an increased number of deaths and incidents of mutilation, as well as prolonged suffering, destruction and chaos. We must incorporate provisions concerning the protection of children in ceasefire negotiations as well as peace agreements.”

Written statement distributed during the February 2013 Security Council Debate on Children and Armed Conflict:

“However, we continue to be concerned with many specific issues. Among these, I would mention the following: […] the increasing use of explosives of ample coverage in dense populations centers or areas where populations converge, such as markets, schools and religious places of worship […].”

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